State Fossil. State Fruit. State Furbearer Animal. State Game Animal. State Game Bird. State Gospel Song. State Grass. State Insect.
State Meal. State Monument. State Motto. State Musical Instrument. State Name Origin. State Nickname. State Percussive Instrument. State Poem. State Quarter. State Reptile. State Rock. State Rock Song. State Seal. Meanwhile, a similar story was unfolding oceans away.
During World War II, under constant threat of bombings, the British had a great need to distinguish incoming aircraft quickly and accurately. Which aircraft were British planes coming home and which were German planes coming to bomb?
These spotters were so valuable that the government quickly tried to enlist more spotters—but they turned out to be rare and difficult to find. The government therefore tasked the spotters with training others. It was a grim attempt. The spotters tried to explain their strategies but failed. No one got it, not even the spotters themselves.
Like the chicken sexers, the spotters had little idea how they did what they did—they simply saw the right answer. With a little ingenuity, the British finally figured out how to successfully train new spotters: by trial-and-error feedback. A novice would hazard a guess and an expert would say yes or no. Eventually the novices became, like their mentors, vessels of the mysterious, ineffable expertise. The Knowledge Gap There can be a large gap between knowledge and awareness. When we examine skills that are not amenable to introspection, the first surprise is that implicit memory is completely separable from explicit memory: You can damage one without hurting the other.
Consider patients with anterograde amnesia, who cannot consciously recall new experiences in their lives. If you spend an afternoon trying to teach them the video game Tetris, they will tell you the next day that they have no recollection of the experience, that they have never seen this game before—and, most likely, that they have no idea who you are, either. Implicitly their brains have learned the game: The knowledge is simply not accessible to their consciousness. Essentially everything about your interaction with the world rests on this process.
Flexible Intelligence One of the most impressive features of brains—and especially human brains—is the flexibility to learn almost any kind of task that comes their way. Give an apprentice the desire to impress his master in a chicken-sexing task and his brain devotes its massive resources to distinguishing males from females.
Give an unemployed aviation enthusiast a chance to be a national hero and his brain learns to distinguish enemy aircraft from local flyboys.
This flexibility of learning accounts for a large part of what we consider human intelligence. While many animals are properly called intelligent, humans distinguish themselves in that they are so flexibly intelligent, fashioning their neural circuits to match the task at hand. Douglas was debilitated by a stroke that paralyzed his left side and confined him to a wheelchair. But Justice Douglas demanded to be checked out of the hospital on the grounds that he was fine. He even claimed to be kicking football field goals with his paralyzed leg.
As a result of this apparently delusional behavior, Douglas was dismissed from his seat on the Supreme Court. What Douglas experienced is called anosognosia. This term describes a total lack of awareness about an impairment. It turns out that alerting the system to contradictions relies on particular brain regions, especially one called the anterior cingulate cortex. In special circumstances of brain damage, this arbitration system can be damaged, and then conflict can cause no trouble to the conscious mind.
Amazingly, this entire sequence is possible in less than four-tenths of a second; otherwise no one would ever hit a fastball.
But even more surprising is that conscious awareness takes longer than that: about half a second. So the ball travels too rapidly for batters to be consciously aware of it. The Australian. Worse than not realizing the dreams of your youth would be to have been young and never dreamed at all.
Jean Genet. Which do you prefer— realise or realize? Will you choose the spelling most popular where you live?
Shundalyn Allen. You can find more details about these spelling differences below. Works on all your favorite websites.
Basics Program vs. Programme—What's the Difference? Basics Emigrate vs. Immigrate—What's the Difference?