For a bill to become law, it must receive the support of both houses independently in the same text. A bill is first introduced in one of the houses and approved or rejected: if approved, it is passed to the other house, which can amend it before approving or rejecting it. If approved without amendments, the bill is promulgated by the President of the Republic and becomes law.
If approved with amendments, it is goes back to the other house; the process continues until the bill is approved in the same text by both houses or is rejected by one house. The Council of Ministers, led by the Prime Minister and is the national executive of Italy, needs to have the confidence of both houses, it must receive a vote of confidence by both houses before being in power, the Parliament can cast a motion of no confidence at any moment, which forces the Prime Minister and their Cabinet to resign.
If the President of the Republic is unable to find a new Prime Minister able to receive the support of both houses, he or she can dissolve one or both houses and new elections are held. Proposals can be made by the Government, individual Members of Parliament, private citizens, individual Regional Councils , the National Council for Economics and Labour. Once a proposal is introduced in one of the two Chambers, it is assigned to a parliamentary committee to carry out preliminary inspection of the proposal.
At this point, two different procedures can be taken. In the "normal procedure", the committee holds a referral meeting, drafts a response and names a spokesperson to report this response leaves the responsibility for composing and approving the bill's text to the assembly; this must be completed in no more than four months for the Chamber of Deputies and two months for the Senate. Once the bill has come before one of the chambers, a general discussion takes place, followed by the review article by article, a vote on the whole bill, an open ballot.
If the bill passes the vote in one chamber it passes to the other chamber of the parliament, where it must be voted through without any further changes. If the other chamber does make any modifications to the bill the new version of the bill must be returned to the first chamber to approve these changes. If the bill repeats this process many times it is said to be "shuttling" or " dribbling. Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from —when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until —when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia , which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in , thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in , following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste , corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in , Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers , as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality.
Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship".
Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from to "; the third phase, with less activism, was to The fourth phase, —, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia , launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland , which resulted in its annexation.
Another feature of the area are the spas. Deutsche Und Spanier. We have the distinct honor to have among us this evening the esteemed Faisal ibn Farouk, late of the court of the Sultan of Turkey. If anyone had bothered to connect the dots, it would have soon become obvious that the vast majority of these incidents were caused by people that Clive had healed. Far East: The Ruanruan establish themselves as a hegemonical power among the Xianbi proto-Mongolians.
Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II , battling on several fronts with initial success. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic , a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists ; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies. Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic.
Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy — if the state joined the Allies in World War I — several territories including former Austrian Littoral , western parts of former Duchy of Carniola , Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles , Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in , territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in and Monaco in After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies.
The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino , the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow.
Human Development Index The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country.
This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine.
The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme ; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in , had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities. Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being.
LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio.
Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their report.
In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 which allo. Feudalism Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Bloch , includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but those of all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clergy, the peasantry bound by manorialism.
Since the publication of Elizabeth A. Brown's "The Tyranny of a Construct" and Susan Reynolds's Fiefs and Vassals, there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society. There is no accepted modern definition of feudalism, at least among scholars.
Verona & Lake Garda: Includes Vicenza, Brescia, Mantua & Cremona (Footprint Focus) eBook: Lara Dunston, Terry Carter, Shona Main: evecbrilancon.ml: Kindle. Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. Footprint Focus travel guides are specially designed Buy Verona & Lake Garda: Includes Vicenza, Brescia, Mantua & Cremona (Footprint Focus): Read 3 Kindle Store Reviews - Amazon.com.
A broader definition, as described in Marc Bloch's Feudal Society, includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but those of all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clergy, those living by their labour, most directly the peasantry bound by manorialism. However, some have taken the feudalism analogy further, seeing feudalism in places as diverse as Spring and Autumn period in China , ancient Egypt , the Parthian empire, the Indian subcontinent and the Antebellum and Jim Crow American South ; the term feudalism has been applied—often inappropriately or pejoratively—to non-Western societies where institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to prevail.
In the 18th century, Adam Smith , seeking to describe economic systems coined the forms "feudal government" and "feudal system" in his book Wealth of Nations.
In the 19th century the adjective "feudal" evolved into a noun: "feudalism". The term feudalism is recent, first appearing in French in , Italian in , English in , in German in the second half of the 19th century; the term "feudal" or "feodal" is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum. The etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin and others suggesting an Arabic origin.
In medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium ; the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents. The first attested instance of this is from , although more primitive forms were seen up to one-hundred years earlier; the origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below.
This was known as feos, a term that took on the general meaning of paying for something in lieu of money; this meaning was applied to land itself, in which land was used to pay for fealty , such as to a vassal. Thus the old word feos meaning movable property changed little by little to feus meaning the exact opposite: landed property.
Another theory was put forward by Archibald R. Lewis said the origin of'fief' is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomus's Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious that says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, which can be translated as "Louis forbade that military provender which they popular. Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy , which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from AD until AD.
It was based in the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice , was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance ; the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire.
In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy , it dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea , including commerce between Europe and North Africa , as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades , most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea.